“Muscle memory.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/muscle%20memory. Retrieved 23 November 2022. In the early stages of empirical motor memory research, Edward Thorndike, a leading pioneer in motor memory research, was among the first to recognize that learning can take place without conscious awareness.  One of the oldest and most notable studies on motor retention was conducted by Hill, Rejall and Thorndike, who showed savings in relearning writing skills after 25 years without practice.  Results on maintenance of learned motor skills have been continuously replicated in studies, suggesting that motor learning is stored as memory in the brain by subsequent practice. For this reason, skills such as riding a bike or driving a car are performed effortlessly and “unconsciously,” even if someone has not exercised these skills for a long period of time.  It is difficult to present cases of “pure” motor memory impairment because the memory system is so prevalent throughout the brain that the damage is often not limited to a specific type of memory. Similarly, diseases commonly associated with motor deficits, such as HD and Parkinson`s disease, have a variety of symptoms and associated brain damage that make it impossible to determine whether motor memory is actually impaired or not. Case studies have provided some examples of how motor memory has been implemented in patients with brain injuries. Although the exact location of muscle memory storage is not known, studies have shown that it is interregional compounds that play the most important role in promoting motor memory coding for consolidation, rather than decreasing overall regional activity. These studies showed a weakened link between the cerebellum and the primary motor area with exercise, it is suspected, due to a reduced need for cerebellum error correction.
However, the connection between the basal ganglia and the primary motor area is strengthened, suggesting that the basal ganglia play an important role in the consolidation of motor memory.  When participating in sport, new motor skills and combinations of movements are often used and repeated. All sports require a certain amount of strength, endurance training, and skillful success to succeed in the required tasks. Muscle memory associated with strength training includes both motor learning elements described below and lasting changes in muscle tissue. A current problem in motor memory is whether or not it consolidates in the same way as declarative memory, a process that involves a fragile initial learning phase that eventually becomes stable and less likely to be damaged over time.  An example of stable motor memory consolidation in a patient with brain damage is the case of Clive Wearing. Clive suffers from severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia due to damage to his temporal, frontal and hippocampal lobes that prevent him from storing new memories and only alert him to the present moment. However, Clive still retains access to his procedural memoirs, to be precise, the motor memories that play a role in piano playing. This could be because motor memory is demonstrated by savings on multiple learning attempts, while declarative memory is demonstrated by recalling a single element.  This suggests that lesions in certain areas of the brain normally associated with declarative memory would not affect motor memory for a well-learned skill. Whether it`s maintaining good shape when paddling in a canoe, sitting with a neutral posture, or pushing a heavier weight. [ref.
needed] Endurance training supports the formation of these new neural representations in the motor cortex by regulating neurotropic factors that could improve the survival of new neural maps formed through skillful movement training.  Strength training results are observed in the spinal cord long before physiological muscle adaptation is established by muscle hypertrophy or atrophy.  The results of endurance and strength training and skillful success therefore help each other maximize performance. When learning a motor task for the first time, the movement is often slow, stiff and slightly disturbed without attention. With exercise, the execution of the motor task becomes smoother, the stiffness of the limbs decreases, and the muscular activity necessary for the task is performed without conscious effort.  These sample phrases are automatically selected from various online information sources to reflect the current use of the word “muscle memory.” The views expressed in the examples do not represent the views of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us your feedback. Strength gains have been shown to occur well before muscle hypertrophy and strength decreases due to detraining or stopping exercise repetition over an extended period of time prior to muscle atrophy.  To be precise, strength training improves motor neuron excitability and induces synaptogenesis, which is thought to help improve communication between the nervous system and the muscles themselves.
 Muscle memory is a form of procedural memory in which a particular motor task is consolidated into memory through repetition, which has been used as a synonym for motor learning. When a movement is repeated over time, the brain creates long-term muscle memory for that task so that it can eventually be performed with little or no conscious effort. This process reduces the need for attention and creates maximum efficiency in motor and storage systems. Muscle memory is found in many daily activities that become automatic and improve with exercise, such as cycling, driving motor vehicles, ball sports, typing, entering PIN codes, playing musical instruments, poker, martial arts, and dancing. Previously untrained muscles acquire newly formed nuclei by fusion of satellite cells that precede hypertrophy. Subsequent detraining leads to atrophy, but no loss of myonuclei. Increasing the number of nuclei in muscle fibers that had experienced a hypertrophic episode would provide a mechanism for muscle memory, explaining the lasting effects of exercise and the ease with which previously trained individuals can be more easily reformed.  Fine motor skills are very important when playing a musical instrument. It has been found that playing the clarinet relies on muscle memory, especially to create special effects through certain tongue movements when air is blown into the instrument.  Speed Cubers use muscle memory when trying to solve puzzle cubes like the Rubik`s Cube in the shortest possible time.   In order to solve these puzzles optimally, the cube must be manipulated according to a series of complex algorithms.
 By building their muscle memory for the movements of each algorithm, speedcubers can implement them at very high speeds without conscious effort.  This plays a role in important speedcubing methods such as Fridrich for the Rubik`s Cube 3×3×3 and EG for the Pocket Cube 2×2×2.