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Which Federal Law Protects the Us Water Supply

In addition, the lead and copper rule requires water systems to test for lead and treat water to prevent corroded pipes from leaching lead. The 68,000 water systems that serve the majority of U.S. citizens are subject to this rule and must be tested in high-risk areas near lead pipes. However, many locations of lead pipes are unknown. The EPA should collect data on lead pipes to improve its monitoring of the rule. Lead in school drinking water is also a concern, as it is a daily source of water for more than 50 million children. The EPA and Department of Education should promote lead testing and improve guidelines for school districts and daycares. Overseen by the EPA, a competitive grant program aimed at protecting and restoring the water quality and aquatic habitat of San Francisco Bay and its watersheds. But despite efforts to provide more financial support to states to maintain drinking water standards, subsidies remain insufficient to meet state and city needs [9].

Fedinick KP, Wu M, Panditharatne M, Olson ED. Threats on tap: Widespread violations underscore the need to invest in infrastructure and water protection. National Resource Defence Council; 2017. www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/threats-on-tap-water-infrastructure-protections-report.pdf. Retrieved 9 August 2017. EPA has undertaken large-scale efforts to restore watersheds that include the protection of aquatic ecosystems and wetlands in key geographic areas. However, EPA and other federal agencies could take a number of steps to improve these efforts. Developments in Water Supply Law, 1972-1973: Review of the American Bar Association.

J Am Water Works Assoc. 1973;65(11):690-699. U.S. Fish and Wildlife works to protect fish and wildlife and their habitats. The Bay Delta office of FWS, an agency of the Department of the Interior, preserves and protects fish, fauna and flora. It also coordinates with other federal organizations on the potential impact of federal projects. (g) other sensitive groundwater areas. In addition to groundwater protection zones, states may identify other areas of the state that are essential to protect groundwater sources from contamination. These other sensitive groundwater areas may include areas such as: areas above aquifers; highly productive aquifers feeding private wells; continuous and highly productive aquifers located at points distant from public water supply wells; areas where water supply aquifers are loaded; karst aquifers flowing into surface reservoirs used for public water supply; sensitive or sensitive hydrogeological environments, such as glacial leaching deposits, aeolian sands and fractured volcanic rocks; and areas of particular concern, selected based on a combination of factors such as hydrogeological sensitivity, groundwater depth, importance as a source of drinking water, and dominant land-use practices. There are several legal ways to hold the EPA and states accountable under the SDWA. The enforcement powers granted to the EPA by the SDWA allow courts to make public health judgments and impose civil penalties based on the severity of the violation, vulnerable population, and other appropriate factors when the EPA brings a civil action against a negligent water system [1].

In addition, EPA can seek an injunction to stop the actions of non-compliant water systems, although the courts have found that they have discretion in the SDWA cases and do not necessarily need to order the required remedies in the event of a violation. In addition to civil prosecutions, crimes can be brought against individual employees of federal authorities [17]. To ensure accountability, the SDWA includes a citizen`s prosecution provision that allows citizens to bring a civil action against any federal agency or the EPO administrator if they allegedly violate the SDWA [4]. However, there is one exception: citizens cannot sue if the EPA, Attorney General, or a state has already filed a civil lawsuit against a noncompliant water system [17]. Stormwater management: The EPA`s pilot project to increase the use of green infrastructure could benefit from the documentation of the Duhigg C collaborative agreements. This tap water is legal but can be unhealthy. New York Times. 16 December 2009. www.nytimes.com/2009/12/17/us/17water.html.

Retrieved 11 July 2017. The Department of Groundwater and Drinking Water (OGWDW), in collaboration with states, tribes and many other partners, protects public health by providing drinking water and groundwater. The OGWDW oversees the Safe Drinking Water Act. In 1974, President Gerald Ford signed the Safe Drinking Water Act, the first legislation of its kind to create a comprehensive regulatory framework for overseeing the country`s drinking water supply. The law has proven essential in setting standards to ensure that Americans have access to clean drinking water. However, the law delegates much of its oversight requirements to the states, sometimes creating a confusing and complicated system of standards that must be adhered to and enforced. While it has proven useful in the safety standards it establishes, the administration and enforcement of the law pose enormous challenges. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and Federal Agencies: Enforcement.

www.epa.gov/enforcement/safe-drinking-water-act-sdwa-and-federal-facilities. Updated November 1, 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2017. The Environmental Protection Agency is committed to protecting human health and the environment. The U.S. EPA Region IX office enforces federal laws that protect natural resources such as air, water, and land. Growing concern in the 1960s about environmental damage caused by industrial runoff and synthetic chemicals entering water supplies triggered several federal studies of the country`s water sources [5, 9]. One such study, conducted in 1969 by the U.S. Public Health Service, found that only 60% of the water systems studied that provided drinking water to interstate carriers met current federal guidelines, with more than half having deficiencies in disinfection, clarification, and water pressure [5]. Between 1961 and 1970, authorities documented more than 46,000 cases of waterborne hepatitis, salmonellosis, and gastroenteritis – diseases caused by chlorine-resistant pathogens [10]. In addition, the 1970 Community Water Supply Study concluded that 90% of the drinking water systems studied exceeded allowable microbial levels [7], while a 1974 Environmental Defense Fund report attributed cancer deaths in New Orleans to consumption of contaminated drinking water from the lower Mississippi River exposed to sewage and industrial waste [1, 11]. In 1996, the SDWA was again amended to extend wellhead protection to surface water protection used for drinking water.

This new program was called the Source Water Protection Program. Roberson YES. What happens after 40 years of drinking water regulation? Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45(1):154-160. As part of the SDWA, the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) provides congressional funding to utilities to achieve or maintain SDWA compliance. From 1998 to 2016, the federal government invested approximately $19 billion in SDSRF, resulting in a total of over $32.5 billion in allocations for water system projects in the United States [24]. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the EPA sets legally binding standards that limit levels of certain contaminants in drinking water. The EPA identifies unregulated pollutants, monitors them, and decides whether or not to regulate them, such as their danger to public health and their frequency. The agency has so far published standards for about 90 contaminants.

However, the EPA could more effectively collect data on unregulated contaminants to determine whether they should be regulated. In addition, public water systems must comply with the EPA and responsible state monitoring, reporting, and other requirements. But the data states reported to the EPA did not always reflect the frequency of health and monitoring violations by municipal water systems or the status of enforcement actions. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was introduced to protect the quality of drinking water in the United States. This law focuses on all water that is actually or potentially intended for consumption, whether from above-ground or groundwater sources. In addition, local governments have criticised EPAs for not always acting effectively and efficiently, especially in situations where compliance can be achieved through cheaper alternatives [9]. In the early 1990s, a Maine city was commissioned by the EPA to install a filtration system that would cost $20 million, even though there was a cheaper solution: a pipe replacement system that cost half [9].